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ZIEGRA Ice - Info

Important information on ice

The refrigeration capacity of ice:
Melting one kilogram of ice at 0°C creates 80 kcal of refrigeration capacity; heating water by 1°C produces 1 kcal, and heating ice by 1°C produces 1/2 kcal.
Consequently the main refrigeration capacity of ice is at melting point; the temperature of the ice has virtually no effect of the overall refrigeration capacity.  
Energy requirements for ice production:
The energy, which is used later in the form of refrigeration capacity, initially has to be used to produce the ice. For sub-cooled ice (ice below 0°C) an over-proportional amount of energy has to be used, as the ice itself has an insulating effect, which has to be overcome in order to sub-cool it.   
Ideal ice temperature:
The optimal temperature with regards to energy is therefore just below freezing at -0.5°C. The full refrigeration capacity of the ice lies here, without excessive amounts of energy having to be applied to produce the ice.    



Ice is always exposed to a certain amount of air humidity and always emits moisture by melting. When this moisture re-freezes, the ice sticks together.  
The colder the ice is, the easier it is for the moisture to freeze. If defrosted water arises on the surface of an iceberg in a reservoir, then this water flows down the ice and freezes on the pieces of ice, it passes = the pieces freeze together. This effect becomes stronger, the longer the ice remains and the more moisture there is.  

As a result, for example flake ice at -7°C tends to freeze together into lumps after a few hours; this can be delayed by storing the ice in a room chilled to around -5°C.  
Chip ice at -0.5°C has the characteristic that the moisture does not re-freeze, as the temperature difference between the ice and the moisture is too low. As a result chip ice can be stored for days at temperatures above 0°C (ideally up to 4° to keep defrosting to a minimum), without freezing together. A light frozen layer merely forms on the surface, while underneath the ice remains loose and granular.  


When calculating the storage volume the bulk weight is important:

1.00 t / m3 for water

0.92 t / m3 for BlockIce

0.50 t / m3 for ChipIce or FlakeIce

That means that when storing 1,000 kg of chip ice, a storage area of 2 m³ plus a reserve for the inverted cone = approx. 2.5 - 3 m³ is required.    

The greater the surface of the ice in relation to its volume, the faster the ice melts. i.e.: 

•    micro ice (with small chip ice particles) melts faster than macro ice (large chip ice particles)

•    scale ice (ice thickness of approx. 2 mm) melts faster than macro ice (ice thickness 9.5 mm)

If fast melting = rapid cooling is necessary, then micro ice (or StreamIce®) should be used. 
If long durability (e.g. for transporting fish in warm conditions) is desired, then macro ice should be used.  

ZIEGRA - ChipIce

Standard, Micro, Macro
read more

ZIEGRA - NuggetIce

hard on the inside,
no sharp edges
read more

ZIEGRA - FlakeIce

supercooled ice for
cooling processes
read more


ZIEGRA - StreamIce

liquid ice / Flow-Ice
read more


block- and pole ice

frozen through, supercooled
different sizes
read more


ZIEGRA Eismaschinen GmbH
Sattlerstr. 5
D-30916 Isernhagen

Phone:  +49 (0)511 90 244 0
Telefax: +49 (0)511 90 244 90



Cooling should be refreshing, gentle, soothing, caring whether on products, in processes or on people. Our world needs to be treated with care – which is best achieved using natural and environmentally-friendly methods but without compromising performance. Exactly how Ice is made when produced by machines from the new ZIEGRA CoolNat series.



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